Forest crops: Greek fir

Forest crops: Greek fir

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Classification, origin and diffusion

Division: Spermatophyta
Subdivision: Gymnospermae
Class: Coniferae
Family: Pinaceae

Fir native to southern Greece and its islands, where it is present in spontaneous formations between 700 and 1600 m above sea level; it is widespread in many European regions where it has been used in reforestation and for ornamental purposes.

Greek fir - Abies cephalonica Loud. (photo Luca Poli)

Greek fir - Abies cephalonica Loud. (photo Luca Poli)

General characteristics

Size and bearing
With a typically conical posture, it has a crown that tends to become irregular with age.
Trunk and bark
The stages are inserted on the stem in verticils, in an often alternating arrangement; grayish rhytidoma in young plants, with a tendency to darken and crack longitudinally in older specimens.
Long, flattened, typically pointed and prickly needles; arranged by brush on the twig. Bright green in color, on the lower page they have two stomatiferous bands of white color, similar to those of Abies alba.
Reproductive structures
Small male cones, typically red when not yet ripe, tending to yellow because they are covered by ripening pollen. Cylindrical female cones, carried erect, about 10-15 cm long; they have pointed triangular bracts.


It has been used in reforestation on limestone soils and in more drought areas than in the Abies alba area; plant tendentially heliophilous, but which, in its juvenile phase, bears short periods in shady areas well.
In the north of Greece there are often specimens hybridized with Abies alba.

Video: A History of Greece to the Death of Alexander the Great - part 1 (June 2022).


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