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Family: Poaceae (Graminaceae)
Species: Arundo donax L.
French: Canne de Provence; English: Giant Cane; Spanish: Caña común; German: Pfahlrohr.
Origin and diffusion
The common or domestic Canna is a perennial herbaceous plant with a long, hollow and robust stem, which grows in fresh or moderately brackish waters. The area of origin extends from the Mediterranean basin to the Middle East to India. In Italy it is widespread throughout the peninsula and on the islands, in particular in the lowlands and submontane areas (the species is present up to altitudes of about 700 m above sea level). However, it cannot be considered a spontaneous plant despite the fact that it is very pronounced in some areas
Since ancient times this plant has been cultivated throughout Asia, southern Europe, north Africa and the Middle East. The ancient Egyptians used the leaves of this plant to wrap the remains of the dead. Given the high density of individuals that characterizes its growth, it has often been used to create windbreak hedges. Given its very high growth rate, it is a species particularly suitable for the production of biomass for fuel use and also as a source of cellulose for the paper industry.
Common cane - Arundo donax L.
Common cane - Arundo donax L.
The common barrel has an underground part composed of a rich system of rhizomes, from which the roots depart, and an epigean part, characterized by tall stems (culms) elignified. The woody rhizome, which can reach variable sizes and weights in function of soil and climatic conditions, bears abundant roots that develop all around (on the lower interface, on the upper face and on the sides, often also on knots and internodes). Ilrizoma also has primary and secondary buds from which the stems and hegem of extension develop from which, at the vegetative restart, new rhizomes grow. The root system is able to grow from 80 to 140 cm, depending on the texture of the soil (Facchini, 1941; Sharma et al., 1998).
The primary buds sprout at the vegetative restart (March-April), giving rise to "maggenghe" acanne, while the secondary buds, which in the period of vegetative restart siallung and grow moving away from the primary bud, sprout in june developing "agostane" canes. The budding of the secondary buds can occur early in the presence of favorable soil and climatic conditions and good water availability. The two types of canes differ essentially in the different leaf foil, which is longer and wider in the fallow canes, and for a different degree of development of the stems, less pronounced in the Augustan canes. The stems are erect and lignified, divided into knots (full) and internodes (cables); they are largely covered by the leaf sheaths, which, except in the first leaves, with reduced foil, expand in a long and relatively wide linear foil, gradually narrowed towards the apex. The leaves are greyish green, smooth or rough only on the margin. The height of the drums varies from 4 to 6 m (Tomasinsig, 2004).
The flowers appear in dense and long panicles of gold or light brown color and lengths equal to 40-70 cm. The fruit is a caryopsis, a dry and indehiscent fruit characteristic of the
grasses. However, the common cane, in our climates, does not lead to the ripening of lecaryoxides and the rare seeds produced do not give rise to germination. For this reason, the propagation of the species occurs exclusively through vegetative (agamic), mediantetalee of stem or propagation of rhizomes. (Other information)
The common cane is a plant that prefers warm and temperate areas. Generally it is sensitive to very low temperatures, especially harmful for the vitality of the rhizomes.
Not very demanding in terms of land, it grows in optimal conditions in the fresh plains which have a good circulation of water and air and have a good availability
water. The species, although not aquatic, also tolerates stagnant water situations as long as it is not prolonged, since this facilitates the development of rot and
bacteriosis that can compromise its vitality. The barrel also prefers soils with alkaline reaction of the substrate, even with the presence of calcium.
With regard to water needs, the depth and power of the root system are to make the crop capable of making use of groundwater at depth
greater than one meter. The common barrel is considered to be a crop with a low need for water and capable of optimizing its efficiency in the event of water stress situations.
It is planted, in early spring if the rhizomes with dormant bud are used, or during the growing season if the internodes with a vegetative bud are used, with a maximum density of about 1 plant per square meter and sixths variable depending on the position of the soil , exposure to light and collection logistics. The cultivation is totally mechanized, from planting, with transplanters inspired by those used for potato tubers, up to chopping with corn heads or with the special ones used for poplar from SFR in the case of arundeti harvested in winter.
Collection and use
In the first year, a dry matter production of up to 50% of the plant's potential is obtained, which is already achieved in the second year. Each year it supplies 40 t / ha of dry matter as an average of the various agro-pedoclimatic and agronomic techniques.
Adversity and pests
There are currently no known animal or vegetable parasites.