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Norco landscape design
Landscaping is the art and science of planting, growing and shaping of landscapes. Landscaping is one of the most significant and most important aspects of the design of urban and rural environments. Designing a garden, park, or landscaping is a combination of artistic creativity and practical skills. It usually involves several phases including planning, implementation, and evaluation. Landscape architecture includes landscape architecture, urban planning, planning and design, and urban forestry.
A natural garden is a garden created with non-organic materials and without the use of fertilizers and pesticides. Natural gardens are usually maintained with mulch, stones, straw, or woodchips, and do not involve the use of chemical-based fertilizers and pesticides. Artificial landscapes, sometimes called "synthetic gardens", use soil, mulch, fertilizer, and pest and disease control.
History of landscape design
There is evidence that the art and science of landscape design began more than five thousand years ago. Archaeologists have found evidence of terracing in Israel dating from 7600 BC, which may be an example of "laying out" a garden. Chinese gardens began to develop in the 7th century AD. As China emerged as a great power during this period, garden landscapes were constructed by royalty and the imperial classes.
By the time of the development of the first gardens, a basic pattern had already been established. It began with a body of water or lake in the center and a garden on both sides, and then developed to larger gardens containing multiple water sources. Chinese and Japanese gardens of the time were not designed to imitate nature, but to reflect a spiritual or metaphysical vision. They were also built with a view of the emperor in the center.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, garden design was lost in the Dark Ages, for a few hundred years, until it was rediscovered during the Renaissance and later in other parts of Europe and the Middle East.
As a result of the Age of Discovery, gardens of the Americas began to appear. The first European-style gardens in the Americas were created by settlers in South Carolina, North America, who were influenced by classical gardens of the British court.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, many cities in Europe and the United States had many parks with parks and gardens which served as recreation, beauty, or even educational areas.
The Arts and Crafts movement during the late 19th century was the first period of landscaping to include the application of art and aesthetics. In Japan, landscape garden designs were heavily influenced by the philosophy of Zen Buddhism.
The early 20th century brought landscape architecture to a level of professionalism.
Landscape architecture today
Today, landscape architects are often the architects or are working on the technical or construction aspect of a project, but in many cases, landscape architects create a cohesive vision with the client.
In the United States, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as of 2000, there were some 27,000 landscape architects.
In the UK, according to the Construction Industry Statistics Board in 2011 there were approximately 5,500 landscape architects employed in the UK, although this figure does not include self employed architects.
However, these figures are disputed by many, figures from 2000, show less than 10,000 landscape architects in the UK, whereas in Australia there are over 16,000.
In the EU in 2002 there were approximately 25,000 landscape architects employed, many of them in the United Kingdom.
According to the International Organization for Landscape Architects there are some 400,000 landscape architects in the world, with almost half of them living in North America.
In the UK, professional landscape architects have their own professional body, the UKLA, in 2008 there were roughly 4000 members.
Landscape Architects in the 21st century
As the world moves towards sustainability, landscape architects must be aware of its many aspects, they must design, conserve and maintain green spaces, design and restore water bodies, as well as assist with the design and maintenance of parks and green spaces. They also design, maintain and restore woodland and urban settings.
The landscape architect must also study the human environment.This can include architecture, urban planning, landscape, urban and environmental design, ecology, environmental science, soil science, hydrology, biophysics, botany, meteorology, meteorite studies, climatology, glaciology, geomorphology, coastal science, oceanography, limnology, paleontology, and geology.
Landscape architects are required to understand these various disciplines, to develop their skills in them and to be knowledgeable of them, as they all play a part in their work.
The following are examples of landscape architecture:
Landscape design is commonly used for trail design. These are intended to be used by the public and are therefore a common part of the landscaping of towns, cities and states. They are typically designed with recreational use in mind, their main purpose is to encourage walking, jogging or cycling. Often many greenways exist in one region, they typically range from a few miles to many miles and can be as small as 0.25 mile or as long as 20 miles.
The following are examples of greenways:
Route design is also an important part of landscape architecture. Routes may be planned for motorized vehicle use or for walkers, runners, mountain bikers, snowmobiles, in-line skaters, horseback riders, or bicyclists. Routes may also be intended to serve as recreational walks, such as a half- or full-marathon, or to provide scenery such as a scenic drive, or access to recreation such as a camping area.
The following are examples of scenic routes:
Trails are a common, and often integral, part of any greenway system. They are often designed for recreational walking or jogging and include facilities such as benches, trails for running, bicycle paths, bicycle stands, and trails for snowmobile or ATV use. Many trails in the United States are under the jurisdiction of the National Trails System Act.
The following are examples of trails:
Landscape architecture often involves the design of a public garden. Public gardens often consist of large areas where residents and tourists are allowed to walk, picnic, and view plants and plants native to the area.
The following are examples of public gardens:
Landscape architecture is commonly used in the urban environment. Landscape architecture can be as small as an individual flower bed or as large as the entire urban environment. A city's parks are typically considered a part of landscape architecture. Urban parks and green spaces are an important part of urban planning, providing a place for rest, and offering a visual and emotional benefit to the citizens of the city.
Parks are important to the human experience in cities, and it has been suggested that cities with good parks have a higher standard of living. Good parks can provide space to relax, and also to perform activities such as fishing, swimming, running, and walking. These parks are often provided by either a private or public corporation, and the city-sponsored spaces are often more well-maintained. Parks can include botanical gardens, arboretums, and urban forests.
The following are examples of urban parks:
Theory and practice
Landscape architects typically receive a three- to four-year degree. This is in addition to another degree, such as a degree in urban planning or horticulture, which is required for more specialized roles such as park planning and urban forestry. Landscape architects are usually required to