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Typical Italian products: Figs of Cosenza DOP

Typical Italian products: Figs of Cosenza DOP


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Production area

EU recognition: Official Journal of the European Union - L 162 series of 22 June 2011

The production area of ​​the "Figs of Cosenza" is delimited, in a portion equal to about a third of the Province of Cosenza, to the north by the large southern slope of the Pollino massif, which prevents contact with the Basilicata region, while to the south by Sila and by the rivers that flow from it towards the southeast, the Nicà river, and towards the southwest, the Savuto river. The area is between 0 and 800 meters above sea level, excluding terrain slopes greater than 35%.

Features

The denomination "Figs of Cosenza" refers exclusively to the dried fruits of domestic fig "Ficus carica sativa", belonging to the variety "Dottato" (or "Ottato"). Their skin is initially straw green in color, then turns greenish yellow. The flesh is amber, medium firm and slightly aromatic. The juice is not very thick, however, when ripe, it sometimes comes out of the wafer, dropwise. The fruit flavor is sweet and honeyed.

Figs of Cosenza DOP

Production regulations - Figs of Cosenza DOP

Article 1
Product name
The Protected Designation of Origin "Figs of Cosenza" is reserved exclusively for the product which meets the conditions and requirements established in this production specification.

Article 2
Product description
The denomination "Figs of Cosenza" refers exclusively to the dried fruits of domestic fig "Ficus carica sativa" (domestica L.), belonging to the variety "Dottato" (or "Ottato"), which in the production area referred to in art. 3 in their fresh state they are ovoid in shape, tending to alglobose, the ostium is mostly semi-open, surrounded by a green ring which tends to turn more brown when ripe. The peel initially straw green, turns greenish yellow. Sometimes it has little evident longitudinal ribs. The receptacle, amber in color, contains amber pulp, medium firm, slightly aromatic, not very juicy; the juice is not very thick, however, amaturation, it sometimes comes out from the wafer, dropwise ("cries"). The flavor is sweet honeyed. Gliachenes, small and empty, are relatively few in number.
2.1 Characteristics of the "Figs of Cosenza" product
The figs as above, dried naturally and with the methods referred to in art 5 (locally called ficusiccati or ficu janchi) at the time of release for consumption have the following characteristics:
-Physical characteristics
- size: depending on the size, the figs are selected in: large: 55 - 65 fruits in 1 kg; medium: 66 - 85 fruits in 1 kg; small: over 85 fruits in 1 kg;
- shape: elongated drop, sometimes slightly flattened at the apex
- peduncle: always present, short and thin
- skin color: light golden from pale straw yellow to light beige, sometimes with limited extension of darker parts
- ribs of the fruit (longitudinal dark lines): perceptible only slightly
- achenes: relatively very few, they are small (average width 0.98 mm, length 1.30 mm), generally empty and not very numerous, not very crunchy
-Chemical features
- humidity: maximum 24%; if conditioned 28%
- total sugars (g% dry matter): 48-57 in sun dried; 50 - 75 in dried in the greenhouse
- Organoleptic characteristics
- flavor: particularly sweet, almost honeyed.
It is proven that the aforementioned characteristics differentiate the dried figs obtained with the Dottato grown in Cosentino compared to other similar dried figs obtained in other geographical areas.

Article 3
Production area
The geographical area of ​​production of "Figs of Cosenza" is less than 1/3 of the entire territory of the province of Cosenza. It is delimited to the north by the large southern slope of the Pollino massif which prevents its contact with the Basilicata region, and to the south it is delimited by the Sila and the rivers that descend from it to the SE, the Nicà river, and to the SW, the Savuto river. . It lies between 0 and 800 m a.s.l., excluding slopes greater than 35%.
It includes: the entire Valley of the Crati River, which flows from South to North and flows NE into the Ionian Sea; the Valley of the Savuto River, affecting the right side of its basin which flows into the Tyrrhenian Sea, SW; it also extends along most of the coastal and hilly areas overlooking the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Ionian Sea. The production area of ​​the "Figs of Cosenza" is represented by the territory of the province of Cosenza between the Pollino mountain area and the Silano plateau.
More precisely, the affected area is delimited to the west by the Tyrrhenian coast line which runs from the river Noce river near the regional border (Calabria-Basilicata) to the Savuto river river which marks the border of the province of Cosenza with the province of Catanzaro. .
The northern boundary is initially delimited by the river Noce itself in the stretch that goes from the focal to the intersection with the SS 18, whose path continues to mark the northern limit until the intersection with the SP Scalea-Tortora, in the locality of Anzo dell'Elce del Comune. of San Nicola Arcella. From here it continues on the same SP Scalea-Tortora until the intersection with the local road connecting the SPsuddetta with the SP ex SS 504. Continuing along the latter, through the Municipalities of SantaDomenica di Talao and Papasidero, it reaches the intersection with the SS 19 in the Municipality of Mormanno and from here, along the route of the SS 19 through the Municipality of Morano Calabro, it arrives at the intersection with the SP circonvallazione Castrovillari. From this point along the local road which, crossing the localities of Rotondello and Cozzo della Paglia, intersects the A3 route near the Conca del Re locality of the Municipality of Castrovillari. From here continue along the A3 motorway towards Cosenza up to the inhabited center of Frascineto from which it joins the SP 105 SS graft SS 534 - SS 92 which runs until it intersects the SP exSS 92, immediately after the inhabited center of Francavilla Marittima, through the town of Civita.
Continuing along the latter SP ex SS 92 arrives at the Cappella locality, near the center of Cerchiara di Calabria; from here it continues first along the extra-urban road that crosses the Santagada district and the Satanasso stream, and then following the tributary of the latter, and which also delimits the border between the Municipalities of Villapiana and Plataci, until it crosses the SP Torre di Cerchiara- Villapiana-Plataci near the Timpone San Pietro. From here the northern limit of the area follows the path of the latter SP, towards Plataci, arriving at the Canale Grande stream which then runs up to the Fiumara Saraceno. Then following the path of the river and following its affluent, in the locality B. Manca, it arrives at the intersection with the SP SS 106 Albidona-Alessandria; from here follows the path of the same SP SS 106 through the inhabited center of Albidona, and then the road connection that crosses the localities of "Bosco Mezzana", "Masseria Chidichimo" and Panebello up to the intersection of the borders between the Municipalities of Albidona, Castroregio and Amendolara. From this point, the area is first delimited by the inter-provincial road that crosses the Turrisi Valley up to the intersection between the Fosso di Placa and Fosso di Frascineta streams which enter the Straface Torrent. The limit is then marked by the path of the latter TorrenteStraface and then by the road connecting the same torrent with the SP SS 481 VS near the Pietra Stoppa location. From here the limit of the area continues along the SP SS 481 VS up to the intersection with the SS 481 and continuing on the latter arrives at the SP Bivio Montegiordano-Oriolo; and going along the latter and then the SP Scalo Rocca Imperiale - Nocara - Bivio Oriolo, which therefore represents the final stretch of the northern border of the reference area, arrives on the Ionian coast at Rocca Imperiale slipway. The eastern limit of the area descends, in a southerly direction, from Rocca Imperiale, a stopover along the Ionian coast to the border between the Municipality of Cariati, in the province of Cosenza, and the Municipality of Crucoli in the province of Crotone. As for the southern area of ​​the reference area, starting from the extreme on the Ionian coast up to the other on the Tyrrhenian coast, the limit is defined as follows. From the Ionian coast, the territorial limit to the west follows the path of the Nicà river, starting from its mouth, up to the inhabited area of ​​Campana, crossing the territories of Terravecchia and Scala Coeli. From the inhabited center of Campana unlimited follow along the route of the SS 108 T, then of the SP ex SS 282 and then of the SP Caloveto-Bocchigliero, on which it continues, through the Municipality of Pietrapaola, the localities of MonteColonina and Valle del Ceraso in the Municipality of Caloveto, the inhabited center of Caloveto until arriving at the intersection with the SS 531. At this point, following the latter, SS 531 arrives at the inhabited center ofropalati at the intersection with the SS 177 and following the same SS 177 towards Paludi, through the inhabited center of Paludi, the localities of La Forestella, Cozzo del Casale and Ginestritanello itself, as well as the locality of Santa Maria delle Grazie in the Municipality of Rossano and the same inhabited center of Rossano, arrive at the junction of the SS 177 with the road that crosses the Contrada Armenian and Petraro. Proceeding on this last road and then on the SP148 and SS106 crossing the inhabited area of ​​Corigliano Calabro arriving at the junction with the SP Acri-S.Giacomo-Corigliano, the course continues to mark the southern limit of the area until the intersection with the SP Acri-San DemetrioCorone in Salici di Acri. Continuing on the latter SP, and also through the road link that passes through the "S. Angelo "," Munnata "and" San Benedetto "up to the Valley of Gioia, and then along the SS 660 it arrives near the urban center of Acri, from which it continues on the SP 23 up to the locality Serricella. From here the limit follows the path of the SP 228 and then that of the road link that joins the SP 228 to the SP ex SS 559 in the Municipality of Luzzi.
From here, the south-east - south limit continues along the SP ex SS 559, arrives at "Timparello" (church of the Assumption) from which it continues along the road that leads to the graft with the SP 266 in the locality of the Sierra Morta. Following the SP 266 along the municipal border between Luzzi and Rose up to the Querceto location, and then the road connection that crosses the Querceto-Acqua dellaPietra locality, it reaches the junction with the SP ex SS 279 in Cupone. At this point the limit is marked first by the route of the SP ex SS 279 up to the locality Stio, and then by the local road Stio-Forestafino to reach the Arente River. Following the path of the river towards the valley, a path that also marks the border between the Municipalities of Rose and San Pietro in Guarano, it reaches the municipal border between Rose and Castiglione Cosentino; from here the southern limit of the area follows first the interpoderal road through the Qualata locality until the junction with the SP 014, then continuing on the same SP 014 until the junction with the SP Castiglione-San Pietro in Guarano-Pianette and then on this last until the crossroads with the SP Altavilla-Ponte Mulino in the Municipality of Lappano; from here it continues on the SPLappano until the intersection with the SP SS 107 Rovito-Scalo Rovito direction Flavetto, passing the inhabited center of Flavetto and then the inhabited center of Rovito, after which it continues along the same SP SS 107 Rovito-Scalo Rovito in the direction north reaching the intersection with the SP SS 107 junction for Rovito, on which it continues for a short distance. Near the intersection of the latter with the SS 107 (immediately after the inhabited center of Rovito) the limit of the area follows the SS 107 until the inhabited center of Spezzano della Sila, then continues along the SP Valle Cupofino to the SP junction Casole Bruzio-Pietrafitta. From here the limit is marked by the path of the latter SP Casole Bruzio-Pietrafitta crossroads, which crosses the town of Pedace reaching the SP Cosenza (Ponte Rovito) –Aprigliano. The boundary line then follows the SP Cosenza (Ponte Rovito) –Aprigliano, crosses the towns Franconi and Acqua Vignoca, the border with the municipality of Aprigliano, and arrives at the inhabited center of Grupa then continuing along the SP ex SS 178, the center inhabited area of ​​Aprigliano, of Santo Stefano, the localities Corte, Agosto, Petrone and the station of Aprigliano, reaching the border between the towns of Aprigliano and Piane Crati, and at the intersection with the SPCancello Serra - Figline-Cellara-Piano Lago. line continues on the latter SP through the inhabited area of ​​Cellara and then on the SP Mangone-Santo Stefano-SS 19 crossing the inhabited center of Mangone, the border with the municipality of Santo Stefano up to the intersection with the SS 19, near the border with the municipality of Rogliano. The line then continues along the SS19 through the municipalities of Rogliano, Marzi, Carpanzano until it reaches the inhabited center of Carpanzano, after which it continues along the SP Carpanzano-Vadomale. It arrives successively in the municipality of Scigliano, then to its inhabited center from where it continues along the SP Scigliano-Maione for a short distance, at the junction with the SP 016 it follows the route of the latter until the intersection with the SP Carpanzano-Vadomale. In Pittarella di Pedivigliano, the line continues on the suburban road that crosses the localities of Il Timpone and Sciolle until it reaches the intersection with the Savuto river. From here it continues along the path of the river up to the locality of Vallone del Forno then follows the road that connects the valley with the SP 032. Then the border line continues on the SP 032 and then on the local road in the direction of the Savuto river whose path, up to the mouth in the Tyrrhenian Sea, marks the final stretch of the reference area.

Article 4
Proof of origin
Each phase of the production process must be monitored by documenting the inputs and outputs for each. In this way, and through the registration in special lists, managed by the inspection body, of the cadastral parcels on which the cultivation takes place, of the producers and de-packagers, as well as through the timely declaration to the control structure of the quantities produced, the traceability of the product is guaranteed.
All natural or legal persons registered in the relevant lists will be subject to control by the control body, in accordance with the provisions of the production specification and related control plan.

Article 5
Obtaining method
5.1. Cultivation method
The plants can be grown in combination with other tree or herbaceous crops or in specialized plants.
The planting layouts, training systems and pruning systems must be those used in the production area, that is, such as to guarantee adequate lighting and ventilation. In particular, for specialized plants, the planting density cannot exceed 400 plants per hectare. The forms of training must be free-vase or bushy. Fruit caprification is excluded and sporadic wild fig plants that can grow near orchards are eliminated.
Rescue irrigation interventions are allowed in the years with little rainfall for the seedlings planted, while drip irrigation systems can be used on plants in full production up to twenty days before the start of the harvest.
Phytosanitary treatments with synthetic chemicals are excluded.
5.2. Drying method
The fresh fruits are still subjected to a natural dehydration process in the plant, after which they will be collected by drying which can be either traditional (in direct sunlight) or protected (in greenhouses with glass cover or other transparent material).
Natural dehydration
The figs are left on the branches until they reach an advanced degree of withering (average humidity content between 39% and 43%), accompanied by a change in color from green to yellow with beige shades and a tendency to bend on their own peduncle, remaining hanging . For these characteristics, they are locally referred to as "passuluni".
The folding of the fig on the peduncle is an element that facilitates the collection of whole peduncle fruits, either manually or through a simple neckline of the main branches.
Harvesting is done manually between 10 August and 10 October.
In order to achieve dehydration such as to meet the requirements of art. 2, the figs must then complete the drying process, for a period of time ranging from three to seven days, depending on the degree of ripeness and the method used (traditional or protected), to obtain the dried figs (locally called dried ficu or ficu janchi).
Traditional drying
The figs are laid on reed supports, or other food material permitted by law, the bottom of which allows perspiration and the consequent loss of water of the fruits, and leaves to dry in the sun for a period of time ranging from three to seven days at depending on their degree of maturation. During this period, figs must be:
• turned over at least twice a day in the first three days, in order to achieve uniform drying;
• protected from night humidity or unexpected rains, by sheltering in covered rooms by covering them with sheets of transparent material positioned on supports, so as to avoid contact with the fruits.
Protected drying
This method involves drying the fruits in greenhouses, partially or totally closed, covering in glass or other transparent material and adjustable openings so that the maximum temperature can be kept below 50 ° C, for a maximum period of 5 days. The locks must also be equipped with anti-insect nets at the openings.
The figs are placed on supports of the type used for traditional drying, placed at a height from the ground that varies from 60 to 100 cm.
In the first three days it is necessary to turn the figs at least twice a day to ensure uniform drying of the product.
5.3. Preliminary processing
The dried figs are brought to the processing centers where they receive one or more of the following treatments:
• washed with cold water;
• washed and blanched in water at 100 ° C for a maximum time of two minutes;
• sterilized with systems allowed by current legislation.
Dried figs are thus obtained, ready to be marketed.
5.4. Marketing
The PDO "Figs of Cosenza" products are marketed as dried figs (dried figs) and must meet the characteristics of art. 2
The product is packaged in wooden trays or food-grade material weighing between 50 and 1000 gr, or in cardboard or food-grade material containers weighing between 1 and 25 kg. The containers must be covered with transparent film.

Article 6
Link with the environment
The "Figs of Cosenza" have qualitative characteristics strictly linked to the production environment, meaning by environment the set of natural factors (varieties, soils, climate) and anthropogenic factors.
Natural factors
Variety
The variety used, Dottato, is Italian, described in 1715 by Salvini, and compared to many other varieties it is of particular value, therefore also exported abroad (in 1920 it was present in the USA with varisynonyms including Kadota) (Casella D. 1933) .
Dottato's fresh figs have optimal characteristics for drying and processing.
They have light fruit, thin and elastic skin, full and sugary pulp, homogeneous, poor diachens that are small and thin since parthenocarpic and almost inaudible to chewing, they ripen early, do not fall, have high resistance to rain and dry out
more easily than figs of other varieties and can almost completely dry on the tree. They give a higher yield than most other varieties and when well dried, they are full, fleshy, pasty, soft, plastic, very white, highly sugary and easy to conserve. However, having a thin skin that makes it very sensitive to sudden dehydration, in order not to be damaged by excessive environmental aridity and by not promptly harvesting, it requires suitable climate and specific attention to the optimal time of harvest.
The Dottato variety cultivated in Cosentino gives an excellent dried because the natural environment has particular soil and climatic conditions whose interaction with the Dottato is decisive for quality, even if the meteorological and pedological parameters intended only in their absolute values ​​cannot be unambiguously clarified, in the current state of available knowledge and scientific elaborations; in fact, the reputation of the "Figs of Cosenza" quality has historically been witnessed for centuries in the world well beyond the scientific proofs of cause and effect between parameters, which are rightly now being sought. (Casella D., 1933; Greco, 1864).
Already in 1864, in fact, it was recognized that Such is the sweetness of the fig tree and the beauty of the exposure of many Municipalities,…. to be more suited than ever to the maturity, gentleness and delicacy of the fruit "(Greco, 1864).
In Cosentino wild figs are scarce and caprification not implemented (Ravasini, 1911), this allows the Doctorate to show its parthenocarpy to the maximum which makes the pulp almost deprived of achenes and in any case with non-fertile achenes.
plots
The dominant soils in the "Figs of Cosenza" area are generally loose, poorly humid, rich in calcium and with average overall fertility.
The soils, of good texture, not clayey or heavy, avoid water stagnation and instead favor the best physiological conditions of the plants, whose foliage is less subject to the onset of fungal and bacterial diseases.
Climate
The area of ​​the "Figs of Cosenza" is characterized by a mild climate. In fact it is between two seas, the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian, to the north the Pollino Massif defends it from the cold winds of Tramontana, the Sila Plateau defends it from the hot and impetuous winds of SE.
The meteorological data available indicate the absence of intense and frequent frosts and mists, moderate annual temperatures, late spring and early summer rainfall limited to short and spaced events, a situation of absence of rain with never torrid temperatures in the period most favorable to maintaining the quality characteristics the fruit, that concerning ripening, harvesting and drying, which benefits significantly from moderate and daily ventilation. The occurrence of these climatic conditions causes the figs to dry almost completely on the tree, providing better quality than the dried ones obtained from the same variety or from similar varieties in different geographical areas.
The moderate and continuous summer winds that mitigate the heat peaks during the summer months, ensure that the thin skin of the Doctorate does not dry out too quickly and does not take on a dark brown color;
thus the speed of migration of the water from the inside of the fruit to the peripheral part of the peel is progressive and continuous, determining the homogeneity and softness of the flesh of the drying fig and favoring the phenomenon whereby the figs slowly dry, remaining hung on the tree (locally known as passuluni): a very important phenomenon for qualitative purposes because it allows growers to harvest them at the optimal time, preventing them from falling naturally, thus remaining exposed to pests.
Anthropic factors
Dried figs which have been very useful since ancient times because they are conservable and energetic, in the Cosenza area have also become an important economic resource (ASN 1587), the subject of a specific local civilization, not developed in the neighboring provinces, focused on the local Dottato variety.
The cultivation, the processing of the Dottato fig, the use of its dried, constitute a specific and traditional culture of the Cosenza area, recognized in Italy over time by every scholar and every merchant, who described and recognized the marked qualities of the famous "dried figs. Cosentino "(Casella, 1933; Pagano 1857).
Lorigine dei Fichi di Cosenza in the territory of the province of Cosenza is attested by numerous documents. Merchants of Paris and London spoke well of the quality of the Kadota (= PhD) figs of Cosenza. Thus expressed in 1927 an American scholar, I. J. Condit, about the Figs of Cosenza. But the product had been known and appreciated for much longer. Probably introduced at the time of Magna Grecia, the cultivation of figs has been documented in the province of Cosenza since 500 (see Leandro Alberti's description of the whole of Italy). More detailed information on its production, drying and marketing can be found in some reports and economic notes drawn up in the 18th and 19th centuries. Particularly interesting in this regard is the Murattiana Statistics of 1812, from which we learn how the Figs of Cosenza were already being exported outside the Kingdom. A specific investigation into the presence of hedgehogs in the provinces of Italy (Ravasini 1911) excluded their use in the province of Cosenza, although they were used in the neighboring provinces. At the beginning of the last century, some companies began to leave the family production sector and to face the market more effectively. Starting from loose figs dried in the sun, the farmers of Cosenza have invented over the centuries a large quantity of derivatives, more or less elaborate and artistic. The human factor is decisive for the quality of the dried figs and for the other types of product derived from them. In fact, the production of "Figs of Cosenza" is characterized by a high contribution of manual skills, experience and knowledge, which are present in all phases of the manufacturing process, and which proves to be decisive for the quality of the final product, which has always obtained differentiated economic awards (CUPECC, 1936). The local experience, ancient, differentiated, consolidated, determines the results also of the production of the many traditional elaborations that are obtained with the "Fichidi Cosenza" (montagnoli, spreaders, nocchette, stuffed figs, baked figs, balls, braids, corollas, salamini of figs, honey of figs), which represent as many forms of expression of the creative imagination of the local population, recognized since the past by a rich bibliography (Casella D.1933; Casella LA 1915; Cerchiara 1933; Jacini 1877; REDA 1960; Palopoli 1985) . They are also loaded with a symbolism in which social and religious meanings converge: in the production area of ​​the "Figs of Cosenza" there are numerous fairs and folkloric events dedicated to the product, including that of S. Giuseppe, documented in Cosenza at least since the middle of the nineteenth century . Today the product is marketed throughout the year, with maximum peaks during the Christmas period, both on national and international markets. The portion destined for abroad is mainly directed to the countries of the European Union, as well as to the U.S. and in Canada. The demand for emigrants who continue to see this product as a symbol of the land of origin also contributes to the export flow. The link between the product and the territory is also evident in its use in traditional gastronomy. The ways of preparing and using the Figs of Cosenza are many. In particular, they are used in pitta mpigliata, a sort of sweet pie, as well as in many local desserts.
But, even without going to the top of the gastronomy, on a social level there is a noteworthy habit of letting the figs dry on the balconies of the houses in the sun, to keep them and to serve them in several occasions, at the beginning or at the end of the meal.

Article 7
Controls
The controls on the conformity of the product to the specification are carried out, in accordance with what is established by articles 10 and 11 of EC Reg. 510/06. This structure is the ICQ control body IstitutoCalabria Qualità, Via F. Mancuso, 1, 87100 - Cosenza, Tel. +39.0984.35117, Fax + 39.0984.484616.

Article 8.
Labeling
The methods of presentation of the product upon release for consumption provide that the following indications appear on the label, in clear and legible characters, in addition to the community graphic symbol:
- Figs of Cosenza possibly followed by translation into other languages ​​and, in full by the translatable expression Denomination of Protected Origin;
- the name, company name, address of the manufacturer or the processing and packaging center;
- the product logo.
The use of the following additional terms is permitted, in Italian or in local dialect, on the packaging of the various types of products:
- Dried figs from Cosenza, dried figs from Cosentino, dried Ficu, Ficu janchi.
The addition of any qualification not expressly provided for is prohibited.
However, the use of indications that refer to names or company names or private brands is allowed provided they have no laudative meaning or are such as to mislead the consumer, as well as other truthful and documentable references that are permitted by the current legislation and that are not in conflict with the purposes and contents of this specification.
The product logo consists of the representation of a dry, white-colored Dottato fig fruit, with lostiolo and 6 green streaks, placed on a stylized green fig leaf. These elements are incorporated in a further and larger stylized leaf, with a white background and a green border. In the lower part there are seven vertical rods of different length, side by side and stylized, green. On the sides of the image there are two semicircle signs, green color. Il tutto è inscritto in un cerchio col bordo verde che contiene in forma circolare e inalto da sinistra verso destra la scritta FICHI di COSENZA.
Il carattere tipografico del testo è il “Futura MdBT”. La tonalità utilizzata del colore verde è scura(“PANTONE 349 C”).
Il limite massimo di riduzione del marchio è cm 2 di base.


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