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EC recognition: EC Reg. N. 507 of 15.06.09 (OJEC L. 151 of 16.06.09)
The production area of the Abbacchio Romano includes the entire territory of the Lazio region which thanks to the nature of the reliefs (limestone and volcanic mountains, hills, alluvial plains), at an average annual temperature varying between 13 -16 ° C, with precipitation annual (between minimum values of 650 mm, along the coastal strip, of 1,000-1,500 mm, in the internal plains up to 1,800-2,000 mm, in correspondence with the Terminillo and the Simbruini), allows to exploit the best conditions for sheep breeding , without causing any stress to the animals.
The suckling lamb, Abbacchio Romano, is fed on breast milk, however, grazing integration with natural foods and spontaneous essences is foreseen. The mother sheep take advantage of natural pastures, pastures and grasses typical of the Lazio Region even if the use of integration with dry fodder and concentrates is allowed, excluding the use of synthetic substances and genetically modified organisms. Grazing can be natural and random, but sometimes the shepherd cultivates grassland which he grazes in rotation due to the vegetative discontinuity of natural pastures which does not allow a constant availability of forage. Lambs and mother sheep must not be subject to food forcing, environmental stress and / or hormonal sophistication, aimed at increasing production. In the summer period the traditional monticazione is practiced. This practice allows the animal to escape the summer heat, and the "mother" sheep to feed on fresh fodder. In these conditions, the "mother" sheep, not subjected to any environmental and nutritional stress, positively influence, with their milk, the quality of the meat of the Roman Abbacchio. Within ten days of birth, the lambs are identified by affixing on the left ear a band or ear button containing on the front the identification code of the farm, complete with letters and numbers and, on the back, the progressive number of the head. Lambs are slaughtered at an age varying between 28-40 days, at a dead weight that can reach 8 kg. The slaughter takes place within 24 hours from the transfer to the slaughterhouse.
Abbacchio Romano PGI (www.abbacchioromanoigp.it)
The Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) Abbacchio Romano is reserved exclusively for lambs born, raised and slaughtered in the territory referred to in art. 3, which comply with the rules laid down by this production and identification specification.
When released for consumption, the meat of "Abbacchio Romano" has the following characteristics:
- Color: light pink and white cover fat;
- Texture: fine;
- Consistency: compact, slightly infiltrated with fat
Delimitation of the production area
The birth, the breeding of milk lambs and the slaughtering operations of the "Abbacchio Romano" must take place only in the Lazio region, as better identified by the attached cartography.
Evidence that the product originates in the geographical area of cuiall’art. 3.
Each phase of the production process must be monitored by documenting incoming products and outgoing products for each. In this way and through the registration of the breeders, slaughterers and disconnectors / packers in special lists managed by the control body, as well as the keeping of production and conditioning registers and the reporting of the quantities produced, the traceability and traceability of the dam downstream of the production chain is guaranteed.
In addition, the animals destined for the production of Abbacchio Romano PGI must be identified, no later than 10 days from birth, by affixing on the left ear a suitable strap or ear button containing on the front the identification code 2 of the breeding complete with letters and numbers and, on the back, the progressive number of the boss.
All natural or legal persons registered in the relative lists will be subject to control by the control body, in accordance with the provisions of the production specification and the related control plan.
Method of obtaining the product
The raw material of the "Roman Abbacchio" consists of the meat and parts of the animal, male and female diagnoses belonging to the most common genetic types in the geographical area referred to in art. 3: Sardinian breed and its crosses, Comisana and its crosses, Sopravvissana and its crosses, Massese and its crosses, Italian Merinizzata and its crosses.
Lambs are slaughtered between 28 and 40 days. of age. The lambs are distinguished according to the provisions of the community regulations, in the following typology:
- "Dairy" lamb (up to 8 kg dead weight)
Lambs are bred in the wild and semi-wild. Hospitalization in suitable facilities whose hygienic-sanitary status guarantees the well-being of the animals is permitted, especially with regard to the good degree of ventilation, natural lighting and flooring. Lambs must be fed with breast milk (natural feeding). Pasturage integration of natural and essential food is allowed. The matricina sheep take advantage of natural pastures, grazing meadows and grasses of the geographical area of production referred to in art. 3. Recourse to integration with dry fodder and concentrates is allowed, excluding the use of detoxified substances and genetically modified organisms.
Lambs and matricina sheep must not be subject to food forcing, environmental astress and / or hormonal sophistication, aimed at increasing production.
During the summer, the traditional practice of monticazione is allowed.
The slaughtering activity, in compliance with national and community regulations, must take place within 24 hours from the transfer to the slaughterhouse, by means of a clean excision of the venagiugular, followed by the peeling and the simultaneous cutting of the front and rear legs. The resulting carcass must be freed of the intestinal system, including the removal of the gallbladder from the liver, which must remain intact inside the carcass together with the coratella. In the following phase, the carcass must be conditioned according to traditional procedures with the peritone adhering to the carcass.
The carcass of "Abbacchio Romano" must present the following characteristics for slaughter:
- Cold carcass weight, skinless, with head and head: maximum 8 kg;
- Flesh color: light pink (the relief must be done on the internal muscles of the abdominal wall);
- Muscle mass consistency: solid (absence of serosity);
- Color of the fat: white;
- Fat consistency: solid (the relief must be made, on the fat mass that overlaps the tail attachment, at room temperature of 18-20 ° C);
- Fat cover: moderately covered the external surface of the carcass, not excessively the kidneys.
The lamb designated by the "Abbacchio Romano" Protected Geographical Indication, can be released for whole consumption and / or portioned according to the following cuts:
- Mezzena: obtained by the sagittal cut of the carcass in symmetrical parts;
- Head and coratella (heart, lung and liver)
Elements that prove the link with the environment
The elements that prove the link with the environment are represented by:
1.1. Natural factors
6.1.1. The entire territory of the Lazio region allows, with its pedoclimatic characteristics, such as:
- reliefs of various nature (limestone, volcanic mountains, hills, alluvial plains);
- average annual temperature variable between 13-16 ° C;
- annual rainfall between minimum values of 650 mm along the coastal strip, of 1,000-1,500 mm in the internal plains up to 1,800- 2,000 mm in correspondence with the Terminillo and the Simbruini;
- to take advantage of the best conditions for sheep breeding, without causing stress to the animal.
The natural factors allow the matricina sheep to use the natural and pratipascolo meadows, in order to give particular qualities to the milk intended for the feeding of the lambs, and consequently to the meat, resulting in an exceptionally favorable synergy as well as for the quality also for the homogeneity of the its characters.
1.2 Human factors
The Abbacchio Romano product has, since ancient times, a strong link with the regional rurality, demonstrated not only by the importance that sheep breeding has in the economy and in the traditions of the entire Lazio Region, but also and above all by the reputation it has always proven to have with the consumer. In fact, the product, since ancient times, has a significant influence on regional gastronomy.
In fact, it appears to have a fundamental role in Roman and Lazio cuisine, giving origin to about a hundred different dishes. On a social level, this link is demonstrated by the numerous festivals, rural festivals and popular events that have as their object the Roman lip and which take place throughout the Lazio region.
Particular is also the use of the Roman word Abbacchio, which turns out to be unique. In fact, from the Romanesque vocabulary of Chiappini the son of the sheep still sucking or recently slated is called abbacchio; lamb the son of the sheep near to reach one year old and already twice shorn. In Florence no distinction is made between them and the other are called lamb. Even a series of operations that are carried out on the mouth are characterized by Roman terminology such as, for example, bagging or barking (slaughtering the garb).
The elements that prove the history and tradition of the Abbacchio Roman product consist of:
2. Historical references, which date back to ancient times:
- In Campo Vaccino since 300 the market for lambs, lambs, deicastrati and sheep was held.
- In the Farfensi regests of the 10th century we find the rules that governed the stazzi and iricoveri for sheep.
- The Popes, after the fall of the Roman Empire, forbade the sheep to graze in the whole Roman countryside, before SantAngelo in September (29 September) and forced out of the whole territory, in SantAngelo in May (3 May), therefore the cattle movement to reach the fresh pastures of the Apennines and escape the summer heat.
- On October 17, 1768, an edict signed by Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico was issued to regulate the sale of clothes.
- Father Zappata in his essay on the babbacchio, taken from the volume "Roma che se va" of 1885, describes the struggles waged in previous centuries, between country merchants who intended to bark (kill the baggage) and the papal government which wished to slow down or even prohibit the initiative from September to the week of passion.
- The Roman Republic in 1798 sanctioned the freedom to dazzle- Trinchieri in "Life of shepherds in the Roman countryside" year 1953, writes that "for a sheep of 4000 sheep, an extension of pasture of about 430 is needed in the winter, while in the spring ( from March 16th to June 24th) 400rubbia are enough ».
3. Cultural references:
- Ercole Metalli, in his book «Uses and customs of the Roman countryside», year 1903, highlights, in describing the farm, which is «il Buttero, to transport to Romeabbacchi»;
- From the collection of uses and customs in force in the province of Rome of the CCIAAdellanno 1951, in chapter X, the ways, the forms of bargaining, the purchase-sale of clothing are highlighted;
- In the catalog-exhibition "Our 100 years" photographic documents of the Roman countryside, we find numerous photographs on sheep farming; one in particular shows "lipstick", a means used for the transport of dead clothes.
4. Statistical references:
- In 1598 73,000 lambs were consumed in Rome
- In 1629 165,797 lambs were consumed in Rome out of a population that counted 115,000 souls.
- Nicola Maria Nicolaj, in his estimate, entitled "Memoirs, laws and observations on the countryside and on the Annona of Rome", Rome 1803, volume III, chap. «A year-long and fruity survey of a massaria of live white sheep composed of capinum. 2,500 ... taken the information on several farms of the Roman countryside ... expenses ... income: remain num. 1540 lambs to be sold at the slaughterhouse, which can be assessed. 1.80 one for the other, which altogether shields 2772 ».
- The Chamber of Commerce of L'Aquila (1968) in the work "Current problems of sheep breeding in Italy" highlights statistical data on the Lazio sheep population from 1918 to 1963;
- LIstat with "National survey on some aspects of breeding and wine production", ministerial decree of the MiPAF 16 December 1971, highlights the consistency and distribution of the breeds in Lazio in 1971.
5. Social and economic references, such as the presence of producers who have been carrying out this type of production for years:
- the Castel di Guido estate: a communication between the director of the company and the central office of the Pio Istituto reports that in October 1969 the company delivered 4209 clothes, 16 sweetbreads to the hospital records - the Castel di Guido estate: from the accounts of masseria signed by Vergaro and by the director in 1958, 1960, 1965 and 1967 there is the production and sale of clothes.
6. There are numerous country festivals, festivals and events taking place in the municipalities of the Lazio Region:
- Since 1952 the "Roman Abbacchio Festival" has been held in the municipality of Roiate (Rome);
- Since 1978 the «Ovine Exhibition Exhibition» has been held in the municipality of Fiamignano (Rieti), with the tasting of products derived from sheep's milk.
7. Gastronomic references:
- the Abbacchio Romano, the very young lamb praised by Giovenale with the phrase "... the most tender of the flock, virgin grass, more than milk filled with blood ..." is part of the repertoire of main courses of traditional Roman and Lazio cuisine.
The control on the compliance of the product with the specification is carried out, in accordance with what is established by art. 10 of EEC Reg. 2081/92.
Packaging and labeling
The meat of "Abbacchio Romano" must be released for consumption with a cash on delivery, consisting of the logo at the bottom of this specification, to guarantee the origin and identification of the product.
The marking must be carried out at the slaughterhouse. The meat is offered for sale by the cut or packaged, according to the cuts referred to in art. 5.
The package must bear on the label in clear print characters that are eligible, in addition to the Community graphic symbol and related mentions (in accordance with the provisions of EC regulation 1726/98 and subsequent amendments) and the information corresponding to the legal requirements the following additional indications:
- the designation "Abbacchio Romano" must be affixed with significantly greater, clear, indelible characteristics, clearly distinct from any other written and followed by the mention Protected Geographical Indication and / or I.G.P.
- the name, company name, address of the manufacturing and packaging company;
- the logo must be imprinted on the surface of the carcass, in correspondence with the external interface of the cuts;
- the logo consists of a square perimeter consisting of three colored lines, green, white and red, interrupted at the top by a red wavy line that connects to an oval red inside the perimeter and containing a stylized lamb head. The perimeter is interrupted, at the bottom, by the writing in red capital letters "I.G.P.". At the bottom, within the square perimeter, there is the indication of the product "ABBACCHIO" in yellow capital letters, and "ROMANO" in red capital letters. The color references expressed in pantone are reported in Art. 9.
The addition of any qualification not expressly provided for is prohibited. However, the use of indications that refer to private brands is allowed, provided that they do not have a laudatory meaning or are such as to mislead the consumer, an indication of the name of the company from whose farms the product derives, as well as other truthful references and documented that are permitted by EU, national or regional legislation and are not in conflict with the purposes and contents of this disciplinary document.
The designation "Abbacchio Romano" must appear in Italian.